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【中英互译】带你了解中国旗袍的发展史
发布人:祥雅俐高级定制    发布时间:2015-01-08 16:04:20

旗袍的发展历史——The Historical Development of Qipao


广义地说,旗袍经历了清代的旗女之袍、民国时期的新旗袍和当代时装旗袍三个时期的发展。
In a broad sense, Qipao has experienced three periods of development, that is, the gown for Qi women in Qing Dynasty, the new style Qipao in the Republic of China era and the Qinpao in contemporary times.
狭义地说,旗袍就是民国旗袍,当然还可以包括民国以后基本保持民国旗袍特征的旗袍。旗袍这一称谓虽然也偶见于清代文献,但广泛而频繁地被使用是在民国。
In a narrow sense, Qinpao refers to the gown in and after the Republic of China era. The name, Qipao, can be found in the bibliography of Qing Dynasty, but is widely used by the people in the Republic of China era.

1、旗袍的定意【The Definition of Qipao】
从字义解,旗袍泛指旗人(无论男女)所穿的长袍,不过只有八旗妇女日常所穿的长袍才与后世的旗袍有着血缘关系。(所谓旗女,是指旗人家庭中的女性成员;旗人,则是清代对被编入八旗的人的称呼。清代八旗的成分以满族为主体,融合了汉族与蒙古族等其他民族在内。八旗中除清朝皇族爱新觉罗的宗室、觉罗以外,还包括八旗满洲、八旗蒙古和八旗汉军)
In terms of the literary meaning, Qipao refers to the gown that Qi people wear, but only the gown that Baqi women wear in the daily life is kin to the Qipao. (Qi women refer to those female members in the family of Qi people. Qi people refer to those who belong to Baqi in Qing Dynasty. The members of Baqi in Qing Dynasty is mainly composed of Man Nationality, combining Han Nationality and Mongolian nationality)
满汉妇女服饰风格的悄相交融,使双方服饰的差别日益减小,遂成为旗袍流行全国的前奏。
The fusion of the fashion style shortens the differences in apparel between Man Women and Han Women. It makes Qipao popular all over China.

2、清朝的旗袍【Qipao in Qing Dynasty】
清朝,旗女主要穿长袍,衣身较肥大,造型线条平直硬朗,衣长至脚踝。
In the Qing dynasty, Qi women usually wear long gowns. The gown is oversize and ankle-length, the model and line are straight.

3、清朝末期旗袍改良【The Improvement of Qipao in the Late Periods of Qing Dynasty】
旗袍演化为融贯中西的新式款型,其受西方影响的改变可说即是由此开端。
Qipao evolves into the new style which combines the essence of the east with that of the west. It marks the beginning of change in Qipao influenced by the west.

4、旗袍的革新【The innovation of Qipao】
1911年辛亥革命风暴骤起,旧式的旗女长袍既被摒弃,新式旗袍则在乱世妆扮中开始酿成。
The Revolution of 1911 discards old gowns and introduces the newly Qipao.

5、旗袍的革新之地——上海【Shanghai, the place of Qipap’s innovation】
商埠开放的上海华洋并处,五方杂居,成为十里洋场奢靡繁华之地,也成为了旗袍创新革命的摇篮。
Shanghai is a commercial port with different nationalities living together. It is also the cradle of new revolution of Qipao.
上海的新旗袍一扫清朝矫饰之风,趋向于简洁,色调力求淡雅,注重体现女性的自然之美。
Shanghai’s newly Qipao is plainer. The color is light and elegantly simple, focusing on the natural beauty of modern women.
旗袍最初是以马甲的形式出现,马甲长及足背,加在短袄上。后将长马甲改成有袖的式样,也就成了新式旗袍的雏形。
Qipao’s earliest form is waistcoat. It is long enough to reach instep. Waistcoat is improved into the clothes with sleeves and becomes the embryonic form of the newly Qipao.
上海女学生是旗袍流行的始作俑者。
Female university students are the pioneers to wear Qipao.

6、旗袍在民国时期的发展【The development of Qipao in the Republic of China Era】
民国旗袍也经历了经典旗袍和改良旗袍两个阶段。
Qipao in the Republic of China era experienced two periods: Classical Qipao and Improved Qipao.
第一阶段以传统的直身平面裁剪为主,并开始引人西方的开省道等工艺,使旗袍更加合身。
The traditional straight cutting is mainly employed in the first period. The craft of using darts is introduced from the west, which makes Qipao fit to wear.
第二阶段引人更多的西式裁制方法,如装袖、装垫肩和拉链等。
More western cutting skills are introduced in the second period, such as installing the sleeves, shoulder pads and zippers, etc.

7、20年代的旗袍——倒大袖与新样式【Qipao in 1920s-reversed large sleeves and newly style】
20世纪10年代和20年代早期,上海女性中时兴过一阵“文明新装”。这种“文明新装”由留洋女学生和中国本土的教会学校女学生率先穿着,城市女性视为时髦而纷纷效仿。
In the early period of 1910s and 1920s, a kind of clothes called “civilization garment” is quite popular with women in Shanghai. This kind of clothes is firstly worn by the female students who come back from abroad and those who studies in the local missionary schools. The woman in city regards it as fashionable and wears it.
上衣多为腰身窄小的大襟衫袄,摆长不过臀,袖短露时或露腕呈喇叭形,袖口一般为7寸,称之为倒大袖,衣摆多为圆弧形,略有纹饰。裙为套穿式,初尚黑色长裙,长及足踝,后渐至小腿上部。
The jacket has small waist. The length of the hem is not over hip. The cuff is usually seven inches, called reversed large sleeve. The hem is circular arc. The skirt is black, ankle-length.
装饰的刺绣和边饰减少,旗袍略微收腰,嵌滚极其精致。
There is less embroidery and decoration on Qipao. Waist is slightly tightened and piping is delicately made.

8、30年代的旗袍与改良旗袍【Qipao in 1930s and improved Qipao】
30年代旗袍更加流行,面料更加简洁,造型更加贴体。
Qipao of 1930s is more prevalent; the fabric is plainer and style is more suitable.
工艺上增加了腰省和胸省,西式的装袖代替了中式的连袖。这一结构的改变变成为了“改良旗袍”。
Waist darts and bust darts are added. Western installed sleeves replace the Chinese one-piece sleeves. Qipao of this change is called “improved Qipao”.

9、40年代的旗袍,黄金时代【Qipao in 1940s, the golden times】
40年代是旗袍的黄金时代。
1940s is the golden times for Qipao.
款式变化多样,旗袍的领子,开叉,袖子宽窄,下摆的位置都有了新的变化。
The style is varied. There are some changes in the collar, slit, sleeve and hem.
到现在,旗袍设计的也基本沿袭40年代旗袍设计的手法。
The skills in designing Qipao at present follows that of 1940s.


相关链接:
【中英互译】带你了解中国旗袍的制作工艺
【中英互译】教你如何挑选及保养旗袍礼服

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